Do you want to learn about toilet code requirements for clearances, venting, and general plumbing?
I invite you to also read my guide on the causes of a toilet bubbling and gurgling when flushed.
In this guide, I go over…
- Toilet code clearances
- Vent distance
- Toilet and other fixtures on same drain stack
- Toilet connection to drain
- And toilet water efficiency
What Are The Toilet Code Requirements?
If you are remodeling or building a new bathroom, you may be wondering about the code requirements for toilets.
Probably the most important code requirements has to do with toilet clearances. If there isn’t enough space around the toilet, it just makes it hard to use. There needs to be at least 21-inches in front of the toilet, 15-inches on the sides, and the toilet should be at least 30-inches from other fixtures.
Toilets should also have a minimum flushing efficiency of 1.6 gallons per flush. The drain pipe needs to be at least 3-4 inches diameter, and the vent pipe at least 6-feet from the toilet trap (if trap is 1.5″ diameter).
If the toilet is on a wet stack with other fixtures, the toilet should always be at the same level or below other fixtures.
International Residential Code
The toilet code requirements in this article are based on the 2018 International Residential Code which has been adopted by many U.S. states and countries.
My goal was just to list some of the key codes, but this isn’t an exhaustive guide. There are always numerous exceptions within the IRC, and your local county or city may have code requirements that take priority over the IRC. The toilet code requirements in this article are based on the 2018 International Residential Code which has been adopted by many U.S. states and countries.
It is updated every 3 years and it is known as the minimum regulations for a home. If you would like to search for toilet code within the IRC, you will need to use the term ‘water closet’ instead of toilet.
Read on for more details of each code…
Read Also: How To Flush A Toilet When The Water Is Off?
Toilet Clearances (How Much Space?)
Probably the most important code section is on toilet clearances. It is detailed in Section R307.1 ‘Space Required’ of the IRC, stating how much space is needed for toilets.
All of the clearance measurements of this sections is based on the center of the toilet. This simple section states that you need 15-inches on the sides of the toilet to the wall, fixture, or obstruction.
You also need at least 21-inches in front of the toilet. It is common that some areas extend this code to 24″ clear space in the front.
This makes sense since it is hard to use a toilet if there isn’t enough space on the sides and the front.
In section P2705.1 of Chapter 27 ‘Plumbing Fixtures’, it also required that the toilet is not closer than 30-inches from other plumbing fixtures such as sinks or bathtubs. This 30-inch measurement is based on the center of the toilet and to the center of the other fixture.
Read Also: How To Unclog A Slow Draining Toilet?
The maximum water usage required in the IRC is 1.6 gallons per flush which is pretty much standard now for all new toilets.
This code is in section P2903.2 Maximum Flow And Water Consumption.
Toilet Gasket Or Flange
The code requirement for connecting the toilet to the drain pipe is stated in Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage.
The toilet needs to be connected to the drain through either a closet flange or a waste connector and sealing gasket. The closet flange needs to be fastened to a strong base and installed with a setting compound.
In section P3005.2.3 it talks about the need for the toilet to have a cleanout within 10-feet of the junction between the drain and the sewer line.
And you shouldn’t have to remove the toilet in order to have cleanout access.
Read Also: Sounds Your Toilet Makes And How To Fix It
Drain Size For Toilets
In section P3005.4.1 it discusses the drain requirements on horizontal drain branches and vertical drain stacks.
Basically, the drain that is connected to a toilet (either horizontal branch or vertical stack) needs to be a minimum 3-4 inches.
In Chapter 31 Vents, the IRC discusses some of the venting code requirements for toilets.
The plumbing vent that goes to the roof shouldn’t be more than 6-feet from a toilet trap of 1.5-inch diameter. The IRC is referencing the trap inside of the toilet, and specifically the trap weir. The trap weir is the end of the water seal or the ‘rim of the trap’ before the water goes into the drain.
The vent shouldn’t be more than 6 feet away from a 1.5-inch trap. And no more than 5-feet from a 1.25-inch trap. Maximum 8-foot distance for a 2-inch trap.
Read Also: How To Clean TOTO Bidet Washlet Toilets?
Toilet And Other Fixtures On Stack
If the toilet and another fixture connect to a vertical drain stack, then the vent will be considered for the lower fixture. The toilet cannot be the upper fixture on the stack of 2 or more fixtures.
The drain stack should also extend vertically to act as the vent. This is detailed in section P3107.3 and P3108.4.